Monday, November 18, 2013


This section describes the various types of depression, 
including major depresion, dysthymic 
disorder, non-specific depression, 
adjustment disorder with depression 
and bi-polar depression.
Different anxiety problems are reviewed 
including panic disorder, post traumatic stress, social anxiety, 
agoraphobia, generalized anxiety, obsessive 
compulsive disorder and specific phobias.
Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling 
brain disease. Here, you will find information 
about the causes and treatment of schizophrenia, 
including information about 
new medications being developed to combat this illness.
Childhood psychological problems related to behavioral 
control problems, including ADHD, conduct 
disturbance, and oppositional behavior are discussed. 
Separation anxiety, a common 
problem in young children, 
is also reviewed in this section.
Psychological problems involving loss of control are 
described in this section. Anger control problems are 
usually diagnosed as intermittent explosive disorder 
by psychologists,and there is a separate discussion 
of Domestic Violence problems. These problems are 
described in this section: Pathological gambling, 
Intermittent Explosive Disorder, 
Domestic Violence, Kleptomania, Pyromania, 
Pathological Gambling, and Trichotillomania.
General characteristics of all personality disorders 
will be summarized, with more detailed 
information about obsessive compulsive, narcissistic 
and borderline personality disorders.
The general characteristics of adjustment disorders are 
explained, as well as presenting information about life 
stressers that lead to 
adjustment problems, such as marital conflict and job stress.
Sometimes family conflicts occur because one or more 
family members has a psychological disorder, 
such as those described above. However, family 
conflicts also arise because of communication 
problems, parenting issues, 
school problems and sibling conflict. These issues 
are described in this section.

Many Disorders Explained Hereunder impact the ENE. 
The Seminar explains how:
(Child) Conduct Disorder
repetitive and persistent behavior that violates the rights of others, 
societal rules, or age-expected rules, such as excessive aggression, destruction 
of property, and stealing

Academic Problems
pattern of failing grades or underachieving in someone without a 
Learning Disability or other disorder

Acculturation Problem
difficulties adjusting to a different culture that can occur after moving
 to a new or unfamiliar place

Adjustment Disorders
depression, anxiety, and/or behavior problems that occur after being in a 
stressful situation (not including someone's death) and cause difficulties 
at work, school, or home

Adoption Issues
problems related to adjusting to a new role as an adoptive parent or
 sibling or an adopted child, including attachment or bonding difficulties, 
feelings of being overwhelmed, anxiety, sadness, and anger

experiencing distress about being in public places, leaving home, and/or
 the fear of being trapped and unable to escape that may cause Panic Attacks

Alcohol Abuse
persistent use of alcohol that results in work, school, relationship, and/or legal 
problems, engaging in dangerous behavior, such as driving a car when drunk, 
or withdrawal symptoms, such as shaking, insomnia, and vomiting

Alzheimer's Disease
memory difficulties, such as not remembering old information or 
not being able to learn new information, that is also associated with 
forgetting who people are or how to do or plan things and/or language problems

Anger Problems
difficulties that include feeling angry for a very long time and/or about almost 
anything, frequent yelling or arguing with others, and/or being very physically 
aggressive that result in relationship problems or health problems, such as
 hypertension, coronary artery disease, and cancer
Anorexia Nervosa
refusing to maintain a body weight at or above what is normal for 
the person's age and height and/or an intense fear of gaining weight or
 becoming fat even when underweight

Antisocial Personality
disregarding and violating laws and the rights of others, lying to people to get 
things, frequently getting arrested or starting physical fights, and being unable 
to plan ahead or hold a steady job

feeling uneasy, worried, or fearful about an event, person, or thing that can be 
associated with rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and nausea

Asperger's Disorder
first seen in childhood, difficulty in social interactions, maintaining eye contact, 
developing friends, displaying emotions, and understanding the feelings of others 
as well as repetitive behaviors and movements, such as hand-flapping

Attention-Deficit (ADHD)
being unable to pay attention to others or when working on a task, easily distracted, 
excessive talking, constantly moving or fidgeting, and/or often interrupting others

first seen in childhood, difficulty in social interactions, displaying emotions, and 
understanding the feelings of others, as well as repetitive behaviors and movements 
and communication problems, including delayed language development and repetitive
 use of words

feelings of sadness, guilt and worthlessness, loss of appetite, insomnia, and 
thoughts of death in response to the death of loved one

Bipolar Disorder
intense mood swings that shift between a persistently normal or depressed 
mood and an elevated or euphoric mood with an inflated sense of self-esteem,
 low need for sleep, excessive talking, racing thoughts, and setting many goals

Body Dysmorphic Disorder
preoccupied with an imagined problem in appearance or overly concerned about 
a small physical imperfection

Borderline Personality
unstable moods, relationships, and views of the self, impulsive behaviors, fits of rage, 
shifting between loving and hating people, suicide attempts, and self-injurious behavior 
like cutting

Bulimia Nervosa
excessively eating and feeling out of control when eating followed by behaviors 
aimed at preventing weight gain, such as vomiting, fasting, excessive exercise, 
and misuse of laxatives or medications

Child Abuse or Neglect
failure to provide child with basic needs or causing physical, psychological, emotional, 
or sexual harm

Communication Disorders
difficulties including a limited vocabulary, inability to recall, produce, or understand 
words or sentences, making errors in tense or speech sound production, and stuttering

difficulties in memory, attention, language, and problem solving in which a person becomes disoriented, not knowing where or when he or she is or who other people are

Dependent Personality
displaying a constant need to be taken care of, clinging or being submissive 
to others, fearing separation or the departure of close people, and problems 
making decisions or engaging in activities without seeking the advice or approval of others

feeling sad for most of the day almost every day, sleeping or eating too much 
or too little, not enjoying things that used to be enjoyed, feeling fatigued or
 lacking energy, difficulty concentrating, feeling worthless, and thinking about 
committing suicide

Divorce-Custody Issues
difficulties, such as sadness, anger, and worry, that concern marriage
 separation and/or the legal guardianship of a child

Eating Disorders
anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or behaviors such as repeatedly chewing 
and spitting out but not swallowing food or binge eating without vomiting, 
exercising, fasting, or misusing laxatives or medications

repeatedly defecating in inappropriate places, either involuntarily or intentionally, after the age of 4

repeatedly urinating in bed or clothes, either involuntarily or intentionally, after the age of 5

Feeding Difficulties in Childhood
persistent failure to adequately eat associated with either significant 
weight loss or the inability to gain weight for at least 1 month before the age of 6

Gender Identity Disorder
persistent identification with the opposite gender, such as cross-dressing 
and stating a desire to be of the opposite sex, feeling uncomfortable with his or
 her gender, or a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role for that sex

General Practice
psychological services covering a variety of difficulties in people of all ages

Generalized Anxiety (GAD)
experiencing excessive worry throughout the day related to many situations 
and actions that is associated with restlessness, rapid fatigue, poor concentration, 
low frustration tolerance, sleep difficulties, and difficulty controlling preoccupation
 with worry

Head Trauma
difficulties, such as memory loss, attention problems, and feelings of anger, 
frustration, and sadness, due to injury to the head or brain, such as a concussion 
or skull fracture

HIV Disease
difficulties, such as depression, anger, anxiety, and relationship or work problems, 
due to an HIV diagnosis

Impulse Control Disorders
inability to maintain self-control and often performing actions to reduce tension and 
stress without even thinking about the consequences, includes Intermittent Explosive 
Disorder, Pathological Gambling, Kleptomania, Pyromania, and Trichotillomania

compulsive stealing, being unable to resist the urge to steal objects, especially ones 
that are not needed for personal use or have no monetary value, and/or experiencing 
enjoyment, satisfaction, or relief while stealing

Learning Disabilities
reading achievement, mathematical ability, and/or writing skills that are significantly below the expected level in relation to the person's age, intelligence, and education

Marital relationship problems
problems between partners that include lack of trust, infidelity, sexual difficulties, 
communication problems, feeling suffocated or unloved, financial concerns, unrealistic
 expectations, and boredom that cause significant distress

Medical Issues
distress, depression, anger, and anxiety concerning a medical diagnosis, 
surgery, treatment, or medication

Mental Retardation
difficulties in functioning, including communication, self-care, home living,
 interpersonal skills, self-direction, academic skills, work, health, and/or safety, 
and low intellectual functioning (an IQ of 70 or below)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
persistent thoughts, impulses, or images (such as "is my car locked" 
or "is the oven off") that are not excessive worries about real-life problems 
and cause considerable anxiety OR persistent behaviors or mental acts
 (like handwashing, checking, and counting) that are attempts at reducing
 distress and anxiety

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
in children, negative, hostile, and defiant behavior, including easily losing 
temper, arguing with adults, disobeying requests or rules, intentionally 
annoying people, being spiteful, and blaming others

Panic Disorder
experiencing intense fear and panic attacks (sweating, shaking, shortness of
 breath, heart pounding) that are unexpected, have no identifiable trigger, and cause 
frequent concern and worry about future panic attacks, their outcome, and negative 
thoughts, such as thoughts about losing control or going crazy

persistent sexual behaviors and difficulties that include exhibitionism, fetishism, 
pedophilia, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism

Parkinson's Disease
a disease of the brain that causes difficulties in motor skills, speech, and other 
difficulties, including muscle rigidity and tremors

Pathological Gambling
being preoccupied with past gambling experiences, possible future gambling 
opportunities, and ways to get money in order to gamble, betting more and more 
money to become excited, and unsuccessful attempts to control or stop gambling

Personality Disorders
lasting problems that a person has experienced almost his or her entire life, 
including the inability to successfully adapt to situations or think about them
 differently, difficulty with self-control, and doing actions that almost always 
cause distress for self or others

Pervasive Developmental Delays
difficulties beginning in childhood that include autism, asperger's syndrome, 
Rett's disorder (lack of expected head growth, movement and language problems), 
and Disintegrative disorder (losing previously acquired skills such as language,
 movement, and social skills, and bladder control)

Phase of Life Problem
difficulties related to a particular developmental phase or life event, such as entering 
school, leaving the home, starting a new career, relationship changes, and retirement

Physical Abuse
severe physical mistreatment of an adult or child, including punching, choking, 
kicking, cutting, false imprisonment, torture, and throwing objects

persistently eating substances that have no nutrition, such as clay, soil, feces, chalk, 
and paper, that is inappropriate for the person's developmental level for at least 1 month

Poly Substance Abuse
use of at least 3 or more substances that results in significant work, school, legal, and
 relationships difficulties and physical danger

Posttraumatic Stress (PTSD)
re-experiencing a traumatic event, such as war or sexual abuse, by having flash 
backs, unpleasant dreams, and/or distressing recollections about the event or 
anxiety when encountered with cues that are attached to the trauma

Relationship Problems
difficulties with a partner, child, or sibling, such as frequent arguing, fighting, and lying, that cause significant distress

experiencing hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not real), delusions 
(thinking people are out to get you, God speaks to you, etc.), disorganized speech 
(incoherent or jumping from topic to topic), movement disturbances, and/or flat or
 inappropriate affect

Selective Mutism
in childhood, the consistent inability to speak in social situations, such as school, 
despite speaking in other situations for at least 1 month (not including the 1st month of school)

Separation Anxiety Disorder
in childhood, frequent excessive worry when separated from home or a major
 attachment figure, when separation is expected, or about losing or harm occurring 
to the attachment figure, and the refusal to go somewhere because worry of being 

Sexual Dysfunction
difficulties in sexual response or desire, including erectile dysfunction, female 
sexual arousal disorder, sexual aversion disorder, premature ejaculation, and 
female orgasmic disorder

Sleep Disorders
difficulties including falling or staying asleep (insomnia), sleeping too 
much (hypersomnia), suddenly falling asleep during the day (narcolepsy),
 and breathing-related sleep problems

Social Phobia
intense and persistent fear of social situations or performance anxiety in social 
settings that include fears of being scrutinized, embarrassed, or humiliated

a physical and psychological reaction to the demands and situations in life that helps 
people deal with these situations, stress that is helpful in getting things done is eustress, 
stress that is harmful or problematic is distress

difficulties in the normal fluency, timing, and pattern of speech that includes sound, 
syllable, or word repetition, pauses in speech, interjections, and pauses within words 

Substance Abuse
substance (drugs, alcohol, etc) use that results in significant work, school, legal, and
 relationships difficulties and physical danger

Tic Disorders
difficulties that include sudden, rapid, recurrent, stereotyped movements, sounds, or
 words that occur many times a day for at least a year

Tourette's Disorder
multiple sudden, rapid, recurrent, stereotyped movements, sounds, and words that
 occurs many times a day for at least a year

impulsive hair pulling that results in noticeable hair loss or "bald spots" 
that is associated with tension before hair pulling and relief or pleasure 
during hair pulling

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